Kohler, J.; Pramanik, A.; van Pelt, W.
Glaciers and ice caps cover 36,000 Km2 or 60% of the land area of the Svalbard archipelago. Roughly 60% of the glaciated area drains to the ocean through tidewater glacier fronts. Runoff from tidewater glaciers is posited to have a significant impact on fjord circulation and thereby on fjord ecosystems. Ocean circulation modelling underway in the Kongsfjord system requires specification of the freshwater amounts contributed by both tidewater and land-terminating glaciers in its basin. The total basin area of Kongsfjord is 1850 km2. We use a coupled surface energy-balance and firn model (Van Pelt et al. 2015) to calculate mass balance and runoff from the Kongsfjord glaciers for the period 1969-2015. Meteorological data from the nearby station at Ny-Ålesund is used for climate forcing in the model domain, with mass balance data at four glaciers in the Kongsfjord watershed used to calibrate model parameters. Precipitation and temperature lapse rates are adjusted on the study glaciers through repeated model runs at mass balance stake locations to match observed and modelled surface mass balance. Long-term discharge measurement at two sites in this region are used to validate the modelled runoff. Spatial and temporal evolution of melt, refreezing and runoff are analyzed, along with the vertical evolution of subsurface conditions. Reference: Van Pelt, W.J.J. & J. Kohler. 2015. Modelling the long-term mass balance and firn evolution of glaciers around Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. J. Glaciol, 61(228), 731-744. Glaciers and ice caps cover 36,000 Km2 or 60% of the land area of the Svalbard archipelago. Roughly 60% of the glaciated area drains to the ocean through tidewater glacier fronts. Runoff from tidewater glaciers is posited to have a significant impact on fjord circulation and thereby on fjord ecosystems. Ocean circulation modelling underway in the Kongsfjord system requires specification of the freshwater amounts contributed by both tidewater and land-terminating glaciers
Yoon, Y.; Conklin, M. H.; Bales, R. C.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z.; Glaser, S. D.
We focus on characterizing snowpack and estimating runoff from snowmelt in high elevation area (>2100 m) in Sierra Nevada for daily (for use in, e.g. flood and hydropower forecasting), seasonal (supply prediction), and decadal (long-term planning) time scale. Here, basin-wide wireless-sensor network data (ARHO, http://glaser.berkeley.edu/wsn/) is integrated into the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), and a case study of the American River basin is presented. In the American River basin, over 140 wireless sensors have been planted in 14 sites considering elevation gradient, slope, aspect, and vegetation density, which provides spatially distributed snow depth, temperature, solar radiation, and soil moisture from 2013. 800 m daily gridded dataset (PRISM) is used as the climate input for the PRMS. Model parameters are obtained from various sources (e.g., NLCD 2011, SSURGO, and NED) with a regionalization method and GIS analysis. We use a stepwise framework for a model calibration to improve model performance and localities of estimates. For this, entire basin is divided into 12 subbasins that include full natural flow measurements. The study period is between 1982 and 2014, which contains three major storm events and recent severe drought. Simulated snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE) are initially compared with the water year 2014 ARHO observations. The overall results show reasonable agreements having the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NS) of 0.7, ranged from 0.3 to 0.86. However, the results indicate a tendency to underestimate the SWE in a high elevation area compared with ARHO observations, which is caused by the underestimated PRISM precipitation data. Precipitation at gauge-sparse regions (e.g., high elevation area), in general, cannot be well represented in gridded datasets. Streamflow estimates of the basin outlet have NS of 0.93, percent bias of 7.8%, and normalized root mean square error of 3.6% for the monthly time scale.
Fan, Jing; Tian, Fei; Yang, Yonghui; Han, Shumin; Qiu, Guoyu
Runoff in North China has been dramatically declining in recent decades. Although climate change and human activity have been recognized as the primary driving factors, the magnitude of impact of each of the above factors on runoff decline is still not entirely clear. In this study, Mian River Basin (a watershed that is heavily influenced by human activity) was used as a proxy to quantify the contributions of human and climate to runoff decline in North China. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was used to isolate the possible impacts of man and climate. SWAT simulations suggest that while climate change accounts for only 23.89% of total decline in mean annual runoff, human activity accounts for the larger 76.11% in the basin. The gap between the simulated and measured runoff has been widening since 1978, which can only be explained in terms of increasing human activity in the region. Furthermore, comparisons of similar annual precipitation in 3 dry-years and 3 wet-years representing hydrological processes in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s were used to isolate the magnitude of runoff decline under similar annual precipitations. The results clearly show that human activity, rather than climate, is the main driving factor of runoff decline in the basin.
Yang, Y.; Cao, S.; Liu, C.; Liu, Y.
It is a hot topic to study the effects of human activities on the rainfall-runoff relationship and quantitatively analyze the influencing factors. According to the flexibility of Copula function to capture multivariate interdependent structure, the Copula structure between rainfall and runoff was analyzed by using the rainfall-runoff variation test method based on Archimedean Copula function to diagnose the variation of rainfall-runoff relationship. The correlation of rainfall-runoff relationship could be directly analyzed by Copula function, which could intuitively display the change of runoff in the same rainfall before and after the mutation period. The statistical method was used to simulate the underlying surface conditions before the abrupt point, and the effects of climate change and human activities on runoff changes were calculated. It can finally figure out the effects of human activities on the rainfall-runoff relationship. Taking xiaoqing river for example, the results showed that the rainfall-runoff relationship in the Xiaoqing River Basin variated in 1996 mainly due to the continuous increase of water consumption in the watershed and the change of the runoff attenuation caused by the large-scale water conservancy projects. And interannual or annual change of rainfall was not obvious; compared with the year before the variation , the runoff capacity of the basin was weakened under the same rainfall conditions after the variation ; Rainfall and runoff distribution were significantly changed and the same magnitude of rainfall and probability of runoff change were significantly different in different periods; The statistical method was used to simulate the runoff from 1996 to 2016. Compared with that from 1960 to 1995, the result showed that the contribution rate of human activities to runoff reduction was 46.8% and that of climate change was 53.2%. By relevant reference, rainfall-runoff correlation and analysis of human activities, the result was
Ranzi, R.; Bacchi, B.; Grossi, G.
Streamflow data and water levels in reservoirs have been collected at 30 recording sites in the Toce river basin and its surroundings, upstream of Lago Maggiore, one of the target areas of the Mesoscale Alpine Programme (MAP) experiment. These data have been used for two purposes: firstly, the verification of a hydrological model, forced by rain-gauge data and the output of a mesoscale meteorological model, for flood simulation and forecasting; secondly, to solve an inverse problem–to estimate rainfall volumes from the runoff data in mountain areas where the influence of orography and the limits of actual monitoring systems prevent accurate measurement of precipitation. The methods are illustrated for 19-20 September 1999, MAP Intensive Observing Period 2b, an event with a 4-year return period for the Toce river basin. Uncertainties in the estimates of the areal rainfall volumes based on rain-gauge data and via the inverse solution are assessed.
Futter, M N; Whitehead, P G; Sarkar, S; Rodda, H; Crossman, J
There are ongoing discussions about the appropriate level of complexity and sources of uncertainty in rainfall runoff models. Simulations for operational hydrology, flood forecasting or nutrient transport all warrant different levels of complexity in the modelling approach. More complex model structures are appropriate for simulations of land-cover dependent nutrient transport while more parsimonious model structures may be adequate for runoff simulation. The appropriate level of complexity is also dependent on data availability. Here, we use PERSiST; a simple, semi-distributed dynamic rainfall-runoff modelling toolkit to simulate flows in the Upper Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. We present two sets of simulations driven by single time series of daily precipitation and temperature using simple (A) and complex (B) model structures based on uniform and hydrochemically relevant land covers respectively. Models were compared based on ensembles of Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) statistics. Equifinality was observed for parameters but not for model structures. Model performance was better for the more complex (B) structural representations than for parsimonious model structures. The results show that structural uncertainty is more important than parameter uncertainty. The ensembles of BIC statistics suggested that neither structural representation was preferable in a statistical sense. Simulations presented here confirm that relatively simple models with limited data requirements can be used to credibly simulate flows and water balance components needed for nutrient flux modelling in large, data-poor basins.
Barton, J. S.; Hall, D. K.
The Green River represents a vital water supply for southwestern Wyoming, northern Colorado, eastern Utah, and the Lower Colorado River Compact states (Arizona, Nevada, and California). Rapid development in the southwestern United States combined with the recent drought has greatly stressed the water supply of the Colorado River system, and concurrently increased the interest in long-term variations in stream flow. Modeling of snowmelt runoff represents a means to predict flows and reservoir storage, which is useful for water resource planning. An investigation is made into the accuracy of the Snowmelt Runoff Model of Martinec and Rango, driven by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow maps for predicting stream flow within the Green River basin. While the moderate resolution of the MODIS snow maps limits the spatial detail that can be captured, the daily coverage is an important advantage of the MODIS imagery. The daily MODIS snow extent is measured using the most recent clear observation for each 500-meter pixel. Auxiliary data used include temperature and precipitation time series from the Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) and Remote Automated Weather Station (RAWS) networks as well as from National Weather Service records. Also from the SNOTEL network, snow-water equivalence data are obtained to calibrate the conversion between snow extent and runoff potential.
Panyushkina, Irina P.; Meko, D. M.; Macklin, M. G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Mukhamadiev, N. S.; Konovalov, V. G.; Ashikbaev, N. Z.; Sagitov, A. O.
Long highly-resolved proxies for runoff are in high demand for hydrological forecasts and water management in arid Central Asia. An accurate (R2 = 0.53) reconstruction of October-September discharge of the Ili River in Kazakhstan, 1779-2015, is developed from moisture-sensitive tree rings of spruce sampled in the Tian Shan Mountains. The fivefold extension of the gauged discharge record represents the variability of runoff in the Lake Balkhash Basin for the last 235 years. The reconstruction shows a 40 year long interval of low discharge preceded a recent high peak in the first decade of the 2000s followed by a decline to more recent levels of discharge not seen since the start of the gauged record. Most reconstructed flow extremes (± 2σ) occur outside the instrumental record (1936-2015) and predate the start of large dam construction (1969). Decadal variability of the Ili discharge corresponds well with hydrological records of other Eurasian internal drainages modeled with tree rings. Spectral analysis identifies variance peaks (highest near 42 year) consistent with main hemispheric oscillations of the Eurasian climatic system. Seasonal comparison of the Ili discharge with sea-level-pressure and geopotential height data suggests periods of high flow likely result from the increased contribution of snow to runoff associated with the interaction of Arctic air circulation with the Siberian High-Pressure System and North Atlantic Oscillation.
Li, Hongyi; Sivapalan, Murugesu
This paper investigates the effects of spatial heterogeneity of runoff generation processes on the scaling behavior of event runoff responses in a natural catchment, the Illinois River Basin near Tahlequah in Oklahoma. A previous study in this basin had revealed a systematic spatial trend in the relative dominance of different runoff generation mechanisms, with the fraction of total runoff generation due to the subsurface stormflow mechanism shown to increase in the downstream direction, while surface runoff generation by saturation excess showed a corresponding decrease. These trends were attributable to corresponding systematic trends in landscape properties, namely, saturated hydraulic conductivity ofmore » soils and topographic slope. Considering the differences in the timing of hillslope responses between the different runoff generation mechanisms, this paper then explores their impacts on the runoff routing responses, including how they change with increasing spatial scale. For this purpose we utilize a distributed, physically based hydrological model, with a fully hydraulic stream network routing component. The model is used to generate instantaneous response functions (IRF) for nested catchments of a range of sizes along the river network, as well as quantitative measures of their shape, e.g., peak and time-to-peak. In order to decipher and separate the effects of landscape heterogeneity from those due to basin geomorphology and hydrologic regime, the model simulations are carried out for three hypothetical cases that make assumptions about regarding landscape properties (uniform, a systematic trend, and heterogeneity plus the trend), repeating these simulations under wet and dry antecedent conditions. The simulations produced expected (consistent with previous theoretical studies) and also somewhat surprising results. For example, the power-law relationship between peak of the IRF and drainage area is shown to be flatter under wet conditions than under
Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Zarriello, Phillip J.
A Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) precipitation-runoff model of the Blackstone River Basin was developed and calibrated to study the effects of changing land- and water-use patterns on water resources. The 474.5 mi2 Blackstone River Basin in southeastern Massachusetts and northern Rhode Island is experiencing rapid population and commercial growth throughout much of its area. This growth and the corresponding changes in land-use patterns are increasing stress on water resources and raising concerns about the future availability of water to meet residential and commercial needs. Increased withdrawals and wastewater-return flows also could adversely affect aquatic habitat, water quality, and the recreational value of the streams in the basin. The Blackstone River Basin was represented by 19 hydrologic response units (HRUs): 17 types of pervious areas (PERLNDs) established from combinations of surficial geology, land-use categories, and the distribution of public water and public sewer systems, and two types of impervious areas (IMPLNDs). Wetlands were combined with open water and simulated as stream reaches that receive runoff from surrounding pervious and impervious areas. This approach was taken to achieve greater flexibility in calibrating evapotranspiration losses from wetlands during the growing season. The basin was segmented into 50 reaches (RCHRES) to represent junctions at tributaries, major lakes and reservoirs, and drainage areas to streamflow-gaging stations. Climatological, streamflow, water-withdrawal, and wastewater-return data were collected during the study to develop the HSPF model. Climatological data collected at Worcester Regional Airport in Worcester, Massachusetts and T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, Rhode Island, were used for model calibration. A total of 15 streamflow-gaging stations were used in the calibration. Streamflow was measured at eight continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations that are part of the U.S. Geological
Liston, G. E.; Sud, Y. C.; Wood, E. F.
To relate general circulation model (GCM) hydrologic output to readily available river hydrographic data, a runoff routing scheme that routes gridded runoffs through regional- or continental-scale river drainage basins is developed. By following the basin overland flow paths, the routing model generates river discharge hydrographs that can be compared to observed river discharges, thus allowing an analysis of the GCM representation of monthly, seasonal, and annual water balances over large regions. The runoff routing model consists of two linear reservoirs, a surface reservoir and a groundwater reservoir, which store and transport water. The water transport mechanisms operating within these two reservoirs are differentiated by their time scales; the groundwater reservoir transports water much more slowly than the surface reservior. The groundwater reservior feeds the corresponding surface store, and the surface stores are connected via the river network. The routing model is implemented over the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-Scale International Project Mississippi River basin on a rectangular grid of 2 deg X 2.5 deg. Two land surface hydrology parameterizations provide the gridded runoff data required to run the runoff routing scheme: the variable infiltration capacity model, and the soil moisture component of the simple biosphere model. These parameterizations are driven with 4 deg X 5 deg gridded climatological potential evapotranspiration and 1979 First Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Global Experiment precipitation. These investigations have quantified the importance of physically realistic soil moisture holding capacities, evaporation parameters, and runoff mechanisms in land surface hydrology formulations.
Kratzer, Charles R.
The occurrence, concentrations, and loads of dissolved pesticides in storm runoff were compared for two contrasting land uses in the Tuolumne River Basin, California, during two different winter storms: agricultural areas (February 1994) and the Modesto urban area (February 1995). Both storms followed the main application period of pesticides on dormant almond orchards. Eight samples of runoff from agricultural areas were collected from a Tuolumne River site, and 10 samples of runoff from urban areas were collected from five storm drains. All samples were analyzed for 46 pesticides. Six pesticides were detected in runoff from agricultural areas, and 15 pesticides were detected in runoff from urban areas. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dacthal (DCPA), metolachlor, and simazine were detected in almost every sample. Median concentrations were higher in the runoff from urban areas for all pesticides except napropamide and simazine. The greater occurrence and concentrations in storm drains is partly attributed to dilution of agricultural runoff by nonstorm base-flow in the Tuolumne River and by storm runoff from nonagricultural and nonurban land. In most cases, the occurrence and relative concentrations of pesticides found in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas were related to reported pesticide application. Pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas were more variable during the storm hydrograph than were concentrations in runoff from urban areas. All peak pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas occurred during the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas peak concentrations in the storm drains occurred at varying times during the storm hydrograph. Transport of pesticides from agricultural areas during the February 1994 storm exceeded transport from urban areas during the February 1995 storm for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, napropamide, and simazine. Transport of DCPA was about the same from agricultural and urban
Brabets, Timothy P.; March, Rod S.; Trabant, Dennis C.
The Tlikakila River is located in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve and drains an area of 1,610 square kilometers (622 square miles). Runoff from the Tlikakila River Basin accounts for about one half of the total inflow to Lake Clark. Glaciers occupy about one third of the basin and affect the runoff characteristics of the Tlikakila River. As part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service, glacier changes and runoff characteristics in the Tlikakila River Basin were studied in water years 2001 and 2002. Based on analyses of remote sensing data and on airborne laser profiling, most glaciers in the Tlikakila River Basin have retreated and thinned from 1957 to the present. Volume loss from 1957-2001 from the Tanaina Glacier, the largest glacier in the Tlikakila River Basin, was estimated to be 6.1 x 109 cubic meters or 1.4 x 108 cubic meters per year. For the 2001 water year, mass balance measurements made on the three largest glaciers in the Tlikakila River BasinTanaina, Glacier Fork, and North Forkall indicate a negative mass balance. Runoff measured near the mouth of the Tlikakila River for water year 2001 was 1.70 meters. Of this total, 0.18 meters (11 percent) was from glacier ice melt, 1.27 meters (75 percent) was from snowmelt, 0.24 meters (14 percent) was from rainfall runoff, and 0.01 meters (1 percent) was from ground water. Although ground water is a small component of runoff, it provides a critical source of warm water for fish survival in the lower reaches of the Tlikakila River.
Burns, D.; Vitvar, T.; McDonnell, J.; Hassett, J.; Duncan, J.; Kendall, C.
The effects of impervious area, septic leach-field effluent, and a riparian wetland on runoff generation were studied in three small (0.38-0.56 km 2) headwater catchments that represent a range of suburban development (high density residential, medium density residential, and undeveloped) within the Croton River basin, 70 km north of New York City. Precipitation, stream discharge, and groundwater levels were monitored at 10-30 min intervals for 1 year, and stream water and groundwater samples were collected biweekly for ??18O, NO3-, and SO42- analysis for more than 2 years during an overlapping period in 2000-2002. Data from 27 storms confirmed that peak magnitudes increased and recession time decreased with increasing development, but lags in peak arrival and peak discharge/mean discharge were greatest in the medium density residential catchment, which contains a wetland in which storm runoff is retained before entering the stream. Baseflow during a dry period from Aug. 2001-Feb. 2002 was greatest in the high-density residential catchment, presumably from the discharge of septic effluent through the shallow groundwater system and into the stream. In contrast, moderate flows during a wet period from Mar.-Aug. 2002 were greatest in the undeveloped catchment, possibly as a result of greater subsurface storage or greater hydraulic conductivity at this site. The mean residence time of baseflow was about 30 weeks at all three catchments, indicating that human influence was insufficient to greatly affect the groundwater recharge and discharge properties that determine catchment residence time. These results suggest that while suburban development and its associated impervious surfaces and storm drains accelerate the transport of storm runoff into streams, the combined effects of remnant natural landscape features such as wetlands and human alterations such as deep groundwater supply and septic systems can change the expected effects of human development on storm runoff
Zongxing, Li; Qi, Feng; Wei, Liu; Tingting, Wang; Aifang, Cheng; Yan, Gao; Xiaoyan, Guo; Yanhui, Pan; Jianguo, Li; Rui, Guo; Bing, Jia
Global warming would inevitably lead to the increased glacier-snow meltwater and mountainous discharge. Taking an example the Hulugou River Basin in the Qilian Mountains, this study confirmed the contribution of cryosphere to runoff by means of the isotope hydrograph separation. The hydro-geochemistry and the isotope geochemistry suggested that both the meltwater and rainwater infiltrated into the subsurface and fed into the river runoff of the Hulugou River Basin in the form of springs. The isotopic composition of river water and underground water was close to the Local Meteoric Water Line, and the δ18O and δD ranged among precipitation, glacier-snow meltwater and frozen soil meltwater. The results indicated that 68% of the recharge of the Hulugou River water was the precipitation, thereinto, glacier-snow meltwater and frozen soil meltwater contributing 11% and 21%, respectively. For tributary-1, precipitation accounted for 77% of the total stream runoff, with frozen soil meltwater accounting for 17%, and glacier-snow meltwater only supplied 6%. During the sampling period, the contribution of surface runoff from precipitation was 44% to tributary-2, and glacier-snow meltwater had contributed 42%; only 14% from frozen soil meltwater. For tributary-3, precipitation accounted for 63% of the total runoff, and other 37% originated from the frozen soil meltwater. According to the latest observational data, the glacier-snow meltwater has accounted for 11.36% of the total runoff in the stream outlet, in which the calculation has been verified by hydrograph separation. It is obvious that the contribution of cryosphere has accounted for 1/3 of the outlet runoff in the Hulugou River Basin, which has been an important part of river sources. This study demonstrated that the alpine regions of western China, especially those basins with glaciers, snow and frozen soil, have played a crucial role in regional water resource provision under global warming.
Barringer, Julia L.; Szabo, Zoltan; Bonin, Jennifer L.; McGee, Craig K.
Arsenic (As) concentrations in the waters of Raccoon Creek in southern New Jersey commonly exceed the State\’s Surface Water Quality Standard (SWQS) for freshwater of 0.017 microgram per liter (mu or ug/L). In order to assess contributions of As from residential runoff to the creek, samples of runoff water were collected from a detention basin in each of two residential developments underlain by different geologic formations and at the outlets of those basins. Samples of streamwater also were collected from Raccoon Creek adjacent to the developments. The samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of As, selected metals, organic carbon, and nutrients. Soil samples in and downgradient from the basins also were collected and analyzed. Concentrations of As in unfiltered water samples of runoff from the basin underlain by glauconitic clays generally were higher (up to 4.35 mu or ug/L) than in runoff from the basin underlain by predominantly quartz sands and silts (up to 2.68 mu or ug/L). Chromium (Cr) concentrations also were higher in runoff from the basin underlain by glauconitic clays than in runoff from the basin underlain by quartz sand and silt. In addition, Cr concentrations were higher in the glauconitic soils than in the quartz-rich soils. Metals such as aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and manganese (Mn) in the runoff and in the streamwater were mostly in particulate form. Arsenic, most metals, and phosphorus (P) however, were mostly in dissolved form in runoff but in particulate form in the streamwater. Total organic carbon concentrations in the runoff ranged from about 10 to nearly 16 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Given such levels of organic carbon and strong correlations between concentrations of some metals and organic carbon, it may be that many of the metals were complexed with dissolved organic carbon and transported in that form in the runoff. Although underlying geologic materials and soils appear to be major contributors of As to the
Skaugen, Thomas; Olav Peerebom, Ivar; Nilsson, Anna
Prediction in ungauged basins is a demanding, but necessary test for hydrological model structures. Ideally, the relationship between model parameters and catchment characteristics (CC) should be hydrologically justifiable. Many studies, however, report on failure to obtain significant correlations between model parameters and CCs. Under the hypothesis that the lack of correlations stems from non-identifiability of model parameters caused by overparameterization, the relatively new parameter parsimonious DDD (Distance Distribution Dynamics) model was tested for predictions in ungauged basins in Norway. In DDD, the capacity of the subsurface water reservoir M is the only parameter to be calibrated whereas the runoff dynamics is completely parameterised from observed characteristics derived from GIS and runoff recession analysis. Water is conveyed through the soils to the river network by waves with celerities determined by the level of saturation in the catchment. The distributions of distances between points in the catchment to the nearest river reach and of the river network give, together with the celerities, distributions of travel times, and, consequently unit hydrographs. DDD has 6 parameters less to calibrate in the runoff module than, for example, the well-known Swedish HBV model. In this study, multiple regression equations relating CCs and model parameters were trained from 84 calibrated catchments located all over Norway and all model parameters showed significant correlations with catchment characteristics. The significant correlation coefficients (with p- value basins was tested for 17 catchments not used to estimate the multiple regression equations. For 10 of the 17 catchments, deviations in Nash-Suthcliffe Efficiency (NSE) criteria between the calibrated and regionalised model were less than 0.1. The median NSE for the regionalised DDD for the 17 catchments, for two
Koczot, Kathryn M.; Jeton, Anne E.; McGurk, Bruce; Dettinger, Michael D.
Precipitation-runoff processes in the Feather River Basin of northern California determine short- and long-term streamflow variations that are of considerable local, State, and Federal concern. The river is an important source of water and power for the region. The basin forms the headwaters of the California State Water Project. Lake Oroville, at the outlet of the basin, plays an important role in flood management, water quality, and the health of fisheries as far downstream as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Existing models of the river simulate streamflow in hourly, daily, weekly, and seasonal time steps, but cannot adequately describe responses to climate and land-use variations in the basin. New spatially detailed precipitation-runoff models of the basin have been developed to simulate responses to climate and land-use variations at a higher spatial resolution than was available previously. This report characterizes daily rainfall, snowpack evolution, runoff, water and energy balances, and streamflow variations from, and within, the basin above Lake Oroville. The new model’s ability to predict streamflow is assessed. The Feather River Basin sits astride geologic, topographic, and climatic divides that establish a hydrologic character that is relatively unusual among the basins of the Sierra Nevada. It straddles a north-south geologic transition in the Sierra Nevada between the granitic bedrock that underlies and forms most of the central and southern Sierra Nevada and volcanic bedrock that underlies the northernmost parts of the range (and basin). Because volcanic bedrock generally is more permeable than granitic, the northern, volcanic parts of the basin contribute larger fractions of ground-water flow to streams than do the southern, granitic parts of the basin. The Sierra Nevada topographic divide forms a high altitude ridgeline running northwest to southeast through the middle of the basin. The topography east of this ridgeline is more like the rain
Domagalski, Joseph L.
Pesticides in stormwater runoff, within the Sacramento River Basin, California, were assessed during a storm that occurred in January 1994. Two organophosphate insecticides (diazinon and methidathion), two carbamate pesticides (molinate and carbofuran), and one triazine herbicide (simazine) were detected. Organophosphate pesticide concentrations increased with the rising stage of the hydrographs; peak concentrations were measured near peak discharge. Diazinon oxon, a toxic degradation product of diazinon, made up approximately 1 to 3 percent of the diazinon load. The Feather River was the principal source of organophosphate pesticides to the Sacramento River during this storm. The concentrations of molinate and carbofuran, pesticides applied to rice fields during May and June, were relatively constant during and after the storm. Their presence in surface water was attributed to the flooding and subsequent drainage, as a management practice to degrade rice stubble prior to the next planting. A photodegradation product of molinate, 4-keto molinate, was in all samples where molinate was detected and made up approximately 50 percent of the total molinate load. Simazine, a herbicide used in orchards and to control weeds along the roadways, was detected in the storm runoff, but it was not possible to differentiate the two sources of that pesticide to the Sacramento River.
Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei
The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth’s hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River.